For example, the prefixes di – (focusing patients, often, but wrongly as “passive voice,” for the order of the words OVA), meng – (Focus of the agent, often referred to as “active voice” wrongly, for the order of the words AVO, memper and diper – (agent and focal length of the patient), ber- (trepied or habit; intransitive VS order) and ter (acts without agent, such as those that are involuntary, sudden or random, for the order VA – VO); suffixes -kan (causal or beneficial) and -i (rental, repetitive or exhaustive); and Circumfixes ber-…-an (plural subject, diffuse action) and ke-…-an (act or state). There are three frequent forms of “Du,” anda (poli), kamu (familiar) and kalian “y`all” (often used as a plural form by you, slightly informal). Anda is used in formal contexts such as in advertising and business or to show respect (although terms such as tuan “sir” and other titles work the same way), while Kamu is used in informal situations. Anda secalin or Anda semua are politely plural. Engkau`s orang is used to address plural topics in the most informal context. The root words are either names or verbs that can be attached to deduce new words, z.B. masak (for cooking) gives memasak (cook, as verb), memasque (cooked for), dimasak (cooked) as well as pemasak (a cook), masakan (a meal, cooking). Many initial consonants pass through a mutation when prefixes are added: z.B. becomes sapu (sweeping) to penyapu (broom); panggil (to call) will be memanggil (calls/calls), carpet (to yourself seven) will be menapis (Sieifs). In Malay, there are four fundamental parts of language: names, verbs, adjectives and grammatical functional words (particles).
Nouns and verbs can be fundamental roots, but they are often derived from other words by prefixes and suffixes. Reduplication is often used to emphasize plurality. However, reduplication has many other functions. For example, orang orang means “(all) humans,” but orangagon means “Scarecrow.” Similarly, Hati means “heart” or “liver,” but Hati-hati is a verb that means “be careful.” In addition, not all revised words are naturally plural, such as Orang-Orang “Scarecrows/Scarecrows,” biri-biri “a/some sheep” and kupu-kupu “butterfly/butterfly.” Some reduys are rhymes, rather than exactly, as in sayur-mayur “(all kinds) of vegetables”. Tremal verbs, demonstrative and possessive determinants follow the noun they change. There are no grammatical adjectives in Malay. Instead, stative verbs are used to describe different animated and inanimate objects, places and abstract concepts. Malay has no grammatical subject in the sense that English does.  In non-explanatory clauses, the noun comes before the verb.
If there is an agent and an object, they are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), the difference in the voice of the verb being encoded.  The OVA, often wrongly referred to as “passive,” is the most fundamental and common order of words. Similarly, verbs are attached to trunk words to form verbs. In Malay, there are four types of affixes, namely prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). These affixes are classified in noun affixes, verb affixes and adjective affixes. The verbs are not bent for the person or number, and they are not marked for tension; The tension is rather referred to by temporal adverbs (as “yesterday”) or by other tense indicators such as sudah “already” and Belum “not yet”. On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb fixation to create nuances of meaning and designate intentional and random voice or moods. Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial language. Here one uses ku-verb for a general report, aku verb is used for a factual statement, and emphatisches aku-lah meng-verb (≈ “I am the one who… to focus on the pronoun.  Often, derivation changes the meaning of the verb rather significantly: personal pronouns are not a distinct part of the language, but a subset of nouns.